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The Java EE 6 Tutorial. Eric Jendrock. Ricardo Cervera-Navarro. Ian Evans. Devika Gollapudi. Kim Haase. William Markito. Chinmayee Srivathsa. Advanced .
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Here is an example of a template saved as template. The sections have style sheets associated with them. The same structure can be reused for the other pages of the application. The client page invokes the template by using the ui:composition tag. In the following example, a client page named templateclient. A client page allows content to be inserted with the help of the ui:define tag. A composite component is a special type of template that acts as a component.

Any component is essentially a piece of reusable code that behaves in a particular way. For example, an inputText component accepts user input. A component can also have validators, converters, and listeners attached to it to perform certain defined actions. A composite component consists of a collection of markup tags and other existing components.

This reusable, user-created component has a customized, defined functionality and can have validators, converters, and listeners attached to it like any other component. With Facelets, any XHTML page that contains markup tags and other components can be converted into a composite component. Using the resources facility, the composite component can be stored in a library that is available to the application from the defined resources location. Table 5—3 lists the most commonly used composite tags and their functions. The composite component can be used as a single component whose feature set is the union of the features declared in the usage contract.

If a composite:interface element appears, there must be a corresponding composite:implementation.

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The following example shows a composite component that accepts an email address as input: This content will not be displayed Note the use of cc. The word cc in JavaServer Faces is a reserved word for composite components. The preceding example content is stored as a file named email.

The web page that uses this composite component is generally called a using page.

JSF 2.0 Composite Components (Topic #6: Java EE 6 Programming from

The component itself is accessed through the use of em:email tag. The preceding example content can be stored as a web page named emuserpage. Resources must be collected in a standard location, which can be one of the following. The JavaServer Faces runtime will look for the resources in the preceding listed locations, in that order. Resources can be considered as a library location. Any artifact, such as a composite component or a template that is stored in the resources directory, becomes accessible to the other application components, which can use it to create a resource instance.

For example, the test attribute of the following conditional tag is supplied with an EL expression that compares 0 with the number of items in the session-scoped bean named cart.

The Java Ee 6 Tutorial - Advanced Topics (Electronic book text)

An immediate evaluation expression is evaluated at once by the underlying technology, such as JavaServer Faces. A deferred evaluation expression can be evaluated later by the underlying technology using the EL. A value expression references data, whereas a method expression invokes a method. An rvalue expression can only read a value, whereas an lvalue expression can both read and write that value to an external object. Finally, the EL provides a pluggable API for resolving expressions so custom resolvers that can handle expressions not already supported by the EL can be implemented.

Immediate evaluation means that the expression is evaluated and the result returned as soon as the page is first rendered.


During the lifecycle, component events are handled, data is validated, and other tasks are performed in a particular order. Therefore, a JavaServer Faces implementation must defer evaluation of expressions until the appropriate point in the lifecycle. Other technologies using the EL might have different reasons for using deferred expressions. These expressions can be used only within template text or as the value of a tag attribute that can accept runtime expressions.

Immediate evaluation expressions are always read-only value expressions. The preceding example expression cannot set the total price, but instead can only get the total price from the cart bean. In the case of JavaServer Faces technology, its controller can evaluate the expression at different phases of the lifecycle, depending on how the expression is being used in the page.

The following example shows a JavaServer Faces inputText tag, which represents a text field component into which a user enters a value.

During this phase, the expression merely accesses the value of name from the customer bean, as is done in immediate evaluation. For a postback request, the JavaServer Faces implementation evaluates the expression at different phases of the lifecycle, during which the value is retrieved from the request, validated, and propagated to the customer bean.

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Value and Method Expressions The EL defines two kinds of expressions: value expressions and method expressions. Value expressions can either yield a value or set a value. Method expressions reference methods that can be invoked and can return a value. Value Expressions Value expressions can be further categorized into rvalue and lvalue expressions.

Rvalue expressions can read data but cannot write it. Lvalue expressions can both read and write data. The first expression accesses the name property, gets its value, adds the value to the response, and gets rendered on the page. The same can happen with the second expression. However, the tag handler can defer the evaluation of this expression to a later time in the page lifecycle, if the technology using this tag allows. In this case, this expression acts as an rvalue expression. During a postback request, this expression can be used to set the value of the name property with user input.

In this case, the expression acts as an lvalue expression. If customer is not found, a null value is returned. You can use a custom EL resolver to alter the way variables are resolved. To reference an enum constant with an expression, use a String literal. Depending on the context, the String literal is converted to the enum constant automatically. For example, in the following expression in which mySuit is an instance of Suit, "hearts" is first converted to Suit. The part inside the brackets is a String literal that is the name of the property to reference.

You can use double or single quotes for the String literal.

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You can also combine the [] and. However, as with JavaBeans component properties, the properties of an Enum class must follow JavaBeans component conventions.

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  5. This means that a property must at least have an accessor method called getProperty, where Property is the name of the property that can be referenced by an expression. For example, consider an Enum class that encapsulates the names of the planets of our galaxy and includes a method to get the mass of a planet. Lvalue expressions can be used only in tag attributes that can accept lvalue expressions. Each expression embedded in the composite expression is converted to a String and then concatenated with any intervening text.

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    Literal value expressions have special syntax rules. When a tag attribute has an enum type, the expression that the attribute uses must be a literal expression. For example, the tag attribute can use the expression "hearts" to mean Suit. The literal is converted to Suit, and the attribute gets the value Suit.

    All expressions used to set attribute values are evaluated in the context of an expected type. If the result of the expression evaluation does not match the expected type exactly, a type conversion will be performed.